A charitable remainder trust can provide a multitude of benefits

If you’re charitably inclined but concerned about having sufficient income to meet your needs, a charitable remainder trust (CRT) may be the answer. A CRT allows you to support a favorite charity while potentially boosting your cash flow, shrinking the size of your taxable estate, reducing or deferring income taxes, and enjoying investment planning advantages.

How does a CRT work?

You contribute stock or other assets to an irrevocable trust that provides you — and, if you desire, your spouse — with an income stream for life or for a term of up to 20 years. (You can name a noncharitable beneficiary other than yourself or your spouse, but there may be gift tax implications.) At the end of the trust term, the remaining trust assets are distributed to one or more charities you’ve selected.

When you fund the trust, you can claim a charitable income tax deduction equal to the present value of the remainder interest (subject to applicable limits on charitable deductions). Your annual payouts from the trust can be based on a fixed percentage of the trust’s initial value — known as a charitable remainder annuity trust (CRAT). Or they can be based on a fixed percentage of the trust’s value recalculated annually — known as a charitable remainder unitrust (CRUT).

Generally, CRUTs are preferable for two reasons. First, the annual revaluation of the trust assets allows payouts to increase if the trust assets grow, which can allow your income stream to keep up with inflation. Second, you can make additional contributions to CRUTs, but not to CRATs.

The fixed percentage — called the unitrust amount — can range from 5% to 50%. A higher rate increases the income stream, but it also reduces the value of the remainder interest and, therefore, the charitable deduction. Also, to pass muster with the IRS, the present value of the remainder interest must be at least 10% of the initial value of the trust assets.

The determination of whether the remainder interest meets the 10% requirement is made at the time the assets are transferred — it’s an actuarial calculation based on the trust’s terms. If the ultimate distribution to charity is less than 10% of the amount transferred, there’s no adverse tax impact related to the contribution.

Handle with care

If the estate tax is repealed as part of tax reform as has been proposed, CRTs would become less beneficial from an estate tax perspective. But they could still help the charitably inclined achieve their goals. CRTs require careful planning and solid investment guidance to ensure that they meet your needs. Before taking action, discuss your options with us.

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A dynasty trust keeps on giving long into the future

With a properly executed estate plan, your wealth can be enjoyed by your children and even their children. But did you know that by using a dynasty trust you can extend the estate tax benefits for several generations, and perhaps indefinitely? A dynasty trust can protect your wealth from gift, estate and generation-skipping transfer (GST) taxes and help you leave a lasting legacy.

Dynasty trust in action

Transfers that skip a generation — such as gifts or bequests to grandchildren or other individuals two or more generations below you, as well as certain trust distributions — are generally considered to be GSTs and subject to the GST tax (on top of any applicable gift or estate tax). However, you can make GSTs up to the $5.49 million (in 2017) GST exemption free of GST tax.

Your contributions to a dynasty trust will be considered taxable gifts, but you can minimize or avoid gift taxes by applying your lifetime gift tax exemption — also $5.49 million in 2017.

After you fund the trust, the assets can grow and compound indefinitely. The trust makes distributions to your children, grandchildren and future descendants according to criteria you establish. So long as your beneficiaries don’t gain control over the trust, the undistributed assets will bypass their taxable estates.

Enhancing the benefits

To increase the benefit to future generations, you can structure the trust as a grantor trust so that you pay any taxes on the trust’s income. The assets will then be free to grow without being eroded by taxes (at least during your lifetime).

Also consider further leveraging your GST tax exemption by funding the dynasty trust with life insurance policies or property that’s expected to appreciate significantly in value. So long as your exemptions cover the value of your contributions, any future growth will be sheltered from GST tax, as well as gift and estate tax.

Is a dynasty trust right for you?

If establishing a lasting legacy is an estate planning goal, a dynasty trust may be the right vehicle for you. Even if an estate and GST tax repeal is passed as part of the GOP’s proposed tax reform legislation, the repeal might be only temporary. So this planning technique could still make sense. Before you take action, consult with us, because a dynasty trust can be complicated to set up. We’ll also keep you apprised of any legislative news regarding an estate and GST tax repeal.

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Who should own your life insurance policy?

If you own life insurance policies at your death, the proceeds will be included in your taxable estate. Ownership is usually determined by several factors, including who has the right to name the beneficiaries of the proceeds. The way around this problem is to not own the policies when you die. However, don’t automatically rule out your ownership either.

And it’s important to keep in mind the current uncertain future of the estate tax. If the estate tax is repealed (or if someone doesn’t have a large enough estate that estate taxes are a concern), then the inclusion of your policy in your estate is a nonissue. However, there may be nontax reasons for not owning the policy yourself.

Plus and minuses of different owners

To choose the best owner, consider why you want the insurance. Do you want to replace income? Provide liquidity? Or transfer wealth to your heirs? And how important are tax implications, flexibility, control, and cost and ease of administration? Let’s take a closer look at four types of owners:

  1. You or your spouse. There are several nontax benefits to your ownership, primarily relating to flexibility and control. The biggest drawback is estate tax risk. Ownership by you or your spouse generally works best when your combined assets, including insurance, won’t place either of your estates into a taxable situation.
  2. Your children. Ownership by your children works best when your primary goal is to pass wealth to them. On the plus side, proceeds aren’t subject to estate tax on your or your spouse’s death, and your children receive all of the proceeds tax-free. On the minus side, policy proceeds are paid to your children outright. This may not be in accordance with your estate plan objectives and may be especially problematic if a child has creditor problems.
  3. Your business. Company ownership or sponsorship of insurance on your life can work well when you have cash flow concerns related to paying premiums. Company sponsorship can allow premiums to be paid in part or in whole by the business under a split-dollar arrangement. But if you’re the controlling shareholder of the company and the proceeds are payable to a beneficiary other than the business, the proceeds could be included in your estate for estate tax purposes.
  4. An ILIT. A properly structured irrevocable life insurance trust (ILIT) could save you estate taxes on any insurance proceeds. The trust owns the policy and pays the premiums. When you die, the proceeds pass into the trust and aren’t included in your estate. The trust can be structured to provide benefits to your surviving spouse and/or other beneficiaries.

Contact us with any questions.

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A Crummey trust can preserve the annual gift tax exclusion

Traditionally, taxpayers have looked for ways to make the most of the $14,000 annual gift tax exclusion, and using a Crummey trust is one way to do that. But with the federal gift and estate tax exemption currently at an inflation-adjusted $5.49 million and the possibility of an estate tax repeal, it may seem that the annual exclusion is less relevant than ever before. Or is it?

Gift and estate tax law uncertainty

Although an estate tax repeal is called for under the “Unified Framework for Fixing Our Broken Tax Code” released by President Trump and congressional Republicans on September 27, there’s no guarantee that legislation including the repeal will be passed. Even if it is, the repeal could be temporary and the estate tax could return in the future. And notably absent from the framework is any mention of a gift tax repeal.

So affluent people whose estates exceed the exemption amount need to continue to seek strategies for minimizing gift and estate taxes. And even those with more modest estates may want to take advantage of the annual exclusion to shelter assets against potential future changes in their wealth and federal estate tax laws. That’s why a Crummey trust may be worth a look.

Convert a future interest into a present interest

The annual exclusion is limited to gifts of a “present interest,” defined by IRS regulations as “an unrestricted right to the immediate use, possession, or enjoyment of property or the income from property.”

But what about gifts to a trust designed to distribute assets to your children or other beneficiaries at a future date? Certain types of trusts satisfy the present interest requirement, but only if the trust distributes all of its income currently or, in the case of a trust set up for a minor, distributes all of the principal and income to the beneficiary at age 21.

A Crummey trust satisfies the present interest requirement by giving beneficiaries the right to withdraw trust contributions for a limited period of time (typically 30 days after the contribution is made). To ensure that these withdrawal rights are treated as present interests, they must be real rights with economic substance, rather than a mere paper formality.

In addition, there can be no agreement with the beneficiaries — express or implied — that they won’t exercise their withdrawal rights.

If you want to make annual exclusion gifts to loved ones but retain some control over when they use the gifted assets, a Crummey trust may be right for you. But before you set one up, be sure you understand the gift, estate and income tax implications. We can help you determine if a Crummey trust is right for your estate plan.

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